I. Intervals

II. Scale Degrees

III. Scales and Keys

IV. Modes

V. Intro to Modulations

VI. Modulations of Aeolian and Ionian

VII. Other Modulations and Ethnic Scales

VIII. 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 Tone Scales



Part V: An Introduction to Scale Modulations


First letís start off by defining a new term. A modulation on the scale level is a change of any note that is normally expected in the key. For example, in D major you expect a C# and an F#. But if you somehow feel that the C# sounds better as a natural, or maybe that you want to raise the one the D# also, you are modulating out of the key. Theoretically you can modulate any key, but often times youíll just get a scale in another mode. Modulation in general is a much more complicated topic then just changing a couple of notes in a scale, but fundamentally, that is what you are doing.


The most common modulations will be studied in the following chapters. They are used so often in music (Western) that they have common names. There are other modulated scales but they arenít used very often and therefore are generally unnamed.


I feel that music is completely boring without modulations. Thereís no innovation and everything follows a set pattern. Modulations provide in a lot of cases, as we will see in the following section, some amazing variation and tonal qualities to the piece.